Azimuthal Dependence of Sound Backscattered from the Sea Surface

Jon Reeves, Yoshiya Igarashi, Lloyd Beck, R. Stern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The dependence on azimuthal angle of acoustic sea surface reverberation is investigated at 60 kHz, utilizing a three axis rotationally stabilized conical beam transducer. Measurements of backscattering strength in the upwind and crosswind directions are compared for a range of grazing angles from 10° to 40°. Polar plots of scattering strength versus azimuthal angle are presented for wind speeds from 4 to 13 kt. An attempt is made to correlate the backscattering measurements with swell and local wind driven waves by means of aerial sea state photographs taken during the test. Data indicate that surface reverberation has a pronounced dependence on azimuthal angle at wind speeds below about 9 kt, but becomes independent of azimuthal angle at higher wind speeds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1284-1288
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number5B
StatePublished - Nov 1969

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


Dive into the research topics of 'Azimuthal Dependence of Sound Backscattered from the Sea Surface'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this