Bacteremia in critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure: A post-hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter multinational cohort

for the Efraim investigators and the Nine-I study group

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Abstract

Purpose: The characteristics and impact of bacteremia have not been widely investigated in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of immunocompromised patients with ARF (EFRAIM study). After exclusion of blood cultures positive for coagulase negative Staphylococci, we compared patients with (n = 236) and without (n = 1127) bacteremia. Results: The incidence of bacteremia was 17%. Bacterial pneumonia and extra-pulmonary ARDS were the main causes of ARF in bacteremic patients. Bacteremia involved gram negative rods (48%), gram positive cocci (40%) or were polymicrobial (10%). Bacteremic patients had more hematological malignancy, higher SOFA scores and increased organ support within 7 days. Bacteremia was associated with higher crude ICU mortality (40% versus 32%, p = 0.02), but neither hospital (49% versus 44%, p = 0.17) nor 90-day mortality (60% versus 56%, p = 0.25) were different from non-bacteremic patients. After propensity score matching based on baseline characteristics, the difference in ICU mortality lost statistical significance (p = 0.06), including in a sensitivity analysis restricted to patients with pneumonia. Conclusions: We analyzed a large population of immunocompromised patients with ARF and an incidence of bacteremia of 17%. We could not demonstrate an impact of bacteremia on mortality after adjusting for baseline characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-119
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Critical Care
Volume64
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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