From September to December 2018, commercial button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) farms in central Iran were surveyed to monitor the causal agent(s) of browning and blotch symptoms on mushroom caps. In addition to dozens of pseudomonads (i.e., Pseudomonas tolaasii and Pseudomonas reactans), six slow-growing gram-positive bacterial strains were isolated from blotched mushroom caps. These bacteria presented as creamy white, circular, smooth, nonfluorescent, and shiny colonies with whole margins resembling members of Microbacteriaceae (Actinobacteria). All of the actinobacterial strains were aggressively pathogenic on cut cap surface of two edible mushrooms (i.e., A. bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii), inducing brown pit symptoms 48 h postinoculation. The strains did not induce symptoms on the vegetables tested (i.e., carrot, cucumber, and potato), and they did not affect the growth of mycelium of tested plant-pathogenic fungi (i.e., Acremonium sp., Fusarium spp., and Phytopythium sp.). Phylogeny of 16S ribosomal RNA and multilocus sequence analysis of six housekeeping genes (i.e., atpD, dnaK, gyrB, ppK, recA, and rpoB) revealed that the bacterial strains belong to the actinobacterial genus Mycetocola spp., whereas the species status of the strains remains undetermined. Mushroom-associated Mycetocola species were previously reported to be capable of detoxifying tolaasin, a toxin produced by P. tolaasii, whereas the strains isolated in this study did not show tolaasin detoxification activities. Altogether, this is the first report of a mushroom disease caused by an actinobacterial species, and “bacterial brown pit” was assigned as the common name of the disease.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science