Organisms must maintain physiological levels of Mg2+ because this divalent cation is critical for the stabilization of membranes and ribosomes, for the neutralization of nucleic acids, and as a cofactor in a variety of enzymatic reactions. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that bacteria utilize to sense the levels of Mg2+ both outside and inside the cytoplasm. We examine how bacteria achieve Mg2+ homeostasis by adjusting the expression and activity of Mg2+ transporters and by changing the composition of their cell envelope. We discuss the connections that exist between Mg2+ sensing, Mg2+ transport, and bacterial virulence. Additionally, we explore the logic behind the fact that bacterial genomes encode multiple Mg2+ transporters and distinct sensing systems for cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic Mg2+. These analyses may be applicable to the homeostatic control of other cations.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Annual review of genetics|
|State||Published - Nov 2013|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes