Penicillium spp. cause blue mold of stored pome fruit. These fungi reduce fruit quality and produce mycotoxins that are regulated for processed fruit products. Control of blue mold is achieved by fungicide application, and in 2015 Academy (active ingredients fludioxonil and difenoconazole) was released for use on pome fruit to manage postharvest blue mold. Baseline sensitivity for fludioxonil but not difenoconazole has been determined for P. expansum. To establish the distribution of sensitivity to difenoconazole before commercial use of Academy, 97 unexposed single-spore isolates from the United States and abroad were tested in vitro. Baseline EC 50 values ranged from 0.038 to 0.827 mg/ml of difenoconazole with an average of 0.16 mg/ml. Complete inhibition of mycelial growth for all but three isolates occurred at 5 mg/ml of difenoconazole, whereas 10 mg/ml did not support growth for any of the isolates examined. Hence, 5 mg/ml of difenoconazole is recommended for phenotyping Penicillium spp. isolates with reduced sensitivity. Isolates with resistance to pyrimethanil and to both thiaben-dazole and pyrimethanil were observed among the isolates from the baseline collection. Academy applied at the labeled rate had both curative and protectant activities and controlled four representative Penicillium spp. from the baseline population. This information can be used to monitor future shifts in sensitivity to this new postharvest fungicide in Penicillium spp. populations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science