Bee viruses: Ecology, pathogenicity, and impacts

Christina M. Grozinger, Michelle L. Flenniken

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

148 Scopus citations


Bees-including solitary, social, wild, and managed species-are key pollinators of flowering plant species, including nearly three-quarters of global food crops. Their ecological importance, coupled with increased annual losses of managed honey bees and declines in populations of key wild species, has focused attention on the factors that adversely affect bee health, including viral pathogens. Genomic approaches have dramatically expanded understanding of the diversity of viruses that infect bees, the complexity of their transmission routes-including intergenus transmission-and the diversity of strategies bees have evolved to combat virus infections, with RNA-mediated responses playing a prominent role. Moreover, the impacts of viruses on their hosts are exacerbated by the other major stressors bee populations face, including parasites, poor nutrition, and exposure to chemicals. Unraveling the complex relationships between viruses and their bee hosts will lead to improved understanding of viral ecology and management strategies that support better bee health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-226
Number of pages22
JournalAnnual Review of Entomology
StatePublished - Jan 7 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Insect Science


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