Berry Consumption and Sleep in the Adult US General Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2018

Li Zhang, Joshua E. Muscat, Penny M. Kris-Etherton, Vernon M. Chinchilli, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Laila Al-Shaar, John P. Richie

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Introduction: Poor sleep is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Berries are rich in micronutrients and antioxidants that may improve sleep quality and duration. We determined the association of berry consumption and sleep duration and sleep difficulty among adult participants in NHANES. Methods: We analyzed the diet of US adults aged ≥ 20 y using two non-consecutive 24 h recalls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2018 (N = 29,217). Poor sleep quality was measured by sleep duration (short sleep duration: <7 h), long sleep (≥9 h), and reported sleep difficulty. The relative risk of poor sleep outcomes for berry consumers vs. nonconsumers was modelled using population weight-adjusted multivariable general logistic regression. Results: About 46% of participants reported inadequate sleep duration, and 27% reported sleep difficulties. Twenty-two percent reported consuming berries. Berry consumers had a 10–17% decreased risk of short sleep. The findings were consistent for specific berry types including strawberries and blueberries (p < 0.05). No significant associations with long sleep were found for total berries and any berry types. A decreased risk of sleep difficulties was found to be linked to blackberry consumption (adjusted OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40–0.97; p = 0.036) but not for other berries. Conclusions: US adult berry consumers had a decreased risk of reporting short sleep compared to nonconsumers. Berries are underconsumed foods in the US adult population, and increased berry consumption may improve sleep quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5115
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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