In this study, kenaf biomass, its dried hydrolysate residue (solid residue left after removing water from hydrolysate) and non-hydrolyzed kenaf residue (solid residue left after hydrolysis process) were liquefied at various temperatures. Hydrolysis of biomass was performed in subcritical water condition. The oil. +. gas yield of biomass materials increased as the temperature increased from 250 to 300. °C. Increasing temperature to 350. °C resulted in decreases in oil. +. gas contents for all biomass feeds studied. On the other hand, preasphaltene. +. asphaltene (PA. +. A) and char yields significantly decreased with increasing the process temperature. The use of carbon or activated carbon supported Ru catalyst in the process significantly decreased char and PA. +. A formations. Oils produced from liquefaction of kenaf, dried kenaf hydrolysate and non-hydrolyzed kenaf residue consist of fuel related components such as aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and benzene derivative compounds, indane and trans/cis-decalin.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal