Biological control with parasitoids

Erika T. Machtinger, Christopher J. Geden

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

12 Scopus citations


House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are common pests in livestock, poultry, and equine facilities. Biological control of these 'filth flies' with pupal parasitoids can be used in conjunction with other control methods as part of an integrated fly management program. The principal filth fly parasitoids include members of the genera Muscidifurax and Spalangia in the hymenopteran family Pteromalidae, as well as others in the family Encyrtidae. Many of these parasitoids are native globally and have been introduced in many areas worldwide. Filth fly parasitoids are generally present in all habitats where suitable hosts can be found, including those associated with poultry, cattle, equine, swine, and other animal operations. They are also commonly occurring in refuse and forensic situations. Naturally occurring populations of parasitoids are typically insufficient to manage fly populations because of the flies' shorter development time and higher fecundity. Augmentation of natural parasitoid populations by releasing commercially-produced parasitoids can increase fly control. Here we review the biology of these biological control agents, and discuss the prospects for their successful use in managing filth fly populations in a variety of animal facilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry
EditorsClaire Garros, Willem Takken, Jeremy Bouyer, Renate C. Smallegange
PublisherWageningen Academic Publishers
Number of pages38
ISBN (Electronic)9789086868636
ISBN (Print)9789086863150
StatePublished - 2018

Publication series

NameEcology and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases
ISSN (Print)1875-0699

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Infectious Diseases


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