Biologically active carbon filtration for haloacetic acid removal from swimming pool water

Hao L. Tang, Yuefeng F. Xie

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32 Scopus citations


A biologically activate carbon (BAC) filter was continuously operated on site for the treatment of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in an outdoor swimming pool at an average empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 5.8. min. Results showed that BAC filtration was a viable technology for direct removal of HAAs from the pool water with a nominal efficiency of 57.7% by the filter while the chlorine residuals were 1.71. ±. 0.90. mg/L during the study. THMs and TOC were not removed and thus were not considered as indicators of the effectiveness of BAC filtration. Increased EBCT in the range of 4.5 and 6.4. min led to improved HAA removal performance, which could be best fit by a logarithmic regression model. BAC filtration also affected the HAA speciation by removing more dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) than trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), resulting in a lower ratio of DCAA/TCAA in the filtered effluent. However, the observation of an overall constant ratio could be attributable to a complex formation and degradation mechanism occurring in swimming pools.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-64
Number of pages7
JournalScience of the Total Environment
StatePublished - Jan 15 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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