Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapies are used to prevent, treat, and remove blood clots in various clinical settings, from emergent to prophylactic. While ubiquitous in their healthcare application, short half-lives, off-target effects, overdosing complications, and patient compliance continue to be major liabilities to the utility of these agents. Biomaterials-enabled strategies have the potential to comprehensively address these limitations by creating technologies that are more precise, durable, and safe in their antithrombotic action. In this review, we discuss the state of the art in anticoagulant and thrombolytic biomaterials, covering the nano to macro length scales. We emphasize current methods of formulation, discuss how material properties affect controlled release kinetics, and summarize modern mechanisms of clot-specific drug targeting. The preclinical efficacy of these technologies in an array of cardiovascular applications, including stroke, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and blood contacting devices, is summarized and performance contrasted. While significant advances have already been made, ongoing development efforts look to deliver bioresponsive "smart" biomaterials that will open new precision medicine opportunities in cardiology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery