Birefringent objects visualized by circular polarization microscopy

Michael Wick Frohlich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


In the standard polarizing microscope, birefringent material appears bright only if its optic axis is oblique to the axes of the polarizer and analyzer filters; consequently, an object may be visualized as several disconnected bright regions. This confusing appearance is avoided if the crossed plane polarizers of the conventional microscope are replaced by circular polarizers of opposite handedness. All orientations of the optic axis in the foal plane then become equivalent; objects generally appear uniformly bright. Ordinary microscopes are easily modified to use this technic with readily available components.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-143
Number of pages5
JournalBiotechnic and Histochemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1986

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Histology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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