Bitspotting: Detecting optimal adaptive steganography

Benjamin Johnson, Pascal Schöttle, Aron Laszka, Jens Grossklags, Rainer Böhme

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


We analyze a two-player zero-sum game between a steganographer, Alice, and a steganalyst, Eve. In this game, Alice wants to hide a secret message of length in a binary sequence, and Eve wants to detect whether a secret message is present. The individual positions of all binary sequences are independently distributed, but have different levels of predictability. Using knowledge of this distribution, Alice randomizes over all possible size-subsets of embedding positions. Eve uses an optimal (possibly randomized) decision rule that considers all positions, and incorporates knowledge of both the sequence distribution and Alice's embedding strategy. Our model extends prior work by removing restrictions on Eve's detection power. The earlier work determined where Alice should hide the bits when Eve can only look in one position. Here, we expand Eve's capacity to spot these bits by allowing her to consider all positions. We give defining formulas for each player's best response strategy and minimax strategy; and we present additional structural constraints on the game's equilibria. For the special case of length-two binary sequences, we compute explicit equilibria and provide numerical illustrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDigital-Forensics and Watermarking - 12th International Workshop, IWDW 2013, Revised Selected Papers
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9783662438855
StatePublished - 2014
Event12th International Workshop on Digital-Forensics and Watermarking, IWDW 2013 - Auckland, New Zealand
Duration: Oct 1 2013Oct 4 2013

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume8389 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Other12th International Workshop on Digital-Forensics and Watermarking, IWDW 2013
Country/TerritoryNew Zealand

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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