Black Raspberry Extract Enhances Glutathione Conjugation of the Fjord-Region Diol Epoxide Derived from the Tobacco Carcinogen Dibenzo[ def, p]chrysene in Human Oral Cells

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Abstract

In a series of previous studies we reported that black raspberry (BRB) powder inhibits dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP)-induced DNA damage, mutagenesis, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development in mice. In the present study, using human oral leukoplakia (MSK-Leuk1) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC1483) cells, we tested the hypothesis that BRB extract (BRBE) will enhance the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and in turn increase GSH conjugation of the fjord-region DBP diol epoxide (DBPDE) derived from DBP leading to inhibition of DBP-induced DNA damage. The syntheses of DBPDE-GSH conjugate, DBPDE-dA adduct, and the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards were performed; LC-MS/MS methods were used for their quantification. BRBE significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular GSH by 31% and 13% at 6 and 24 h, respectively, in OSCC cells; in MSK-LeuK1 cells, the levels of GSH significantly (p < 0.05) increased by 55% and 22%, at 1 and 6 h. Since BRBE significantly enhanced the synthesis of GSH in both cell types, subsequent experiments were performed in MSK-Leuk1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the types of proteins involved in the synthesis of GSH. BRBE significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein expression (2.5-fold) of the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) but had no effect on the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) and glutathione synthetase (GSS). LC-MS/MS analysis showed that pretreatment of cells with BRBE followed by DBPDE significantly (p < 0.05) increased the levels of DBPDE-GSH conjugate (2.5-fold) and decreased DNA damage by 74% measured by assessing levels of DBPDE-dA adduct formation. Collectively, the results of this in vitro study clearly support our hypothesis, and the LC-MS/MS methods developed in the present study will be highly useful in testing the same hypothesis initially in our mouse model and ultimately in smokers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2152-2159
Number of pages8
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Volume35
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 21 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology

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