Blazed reflection gratings with electron-beam lithography and ion-beam etching

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


In modern X-ray-grating development for astronomical applications, electron-beam lithography has emerged as a primary fabrication approach to producing high-performance reflection gratings for both current and future missions. The work presented here leverages years of development in electron-beam lithography for X-ray gratings to produce a grating pattern that is then blazed with ion-beam etching. The directional ion-beam etching reshapes the groove facets to a consistent, triangular profile with a facet angle specified by the grating application. An initial prototype X-ray reflection grating fabricated with a combination of electron-beam lithography and ion-beam etching is presented here, along with diffraction efficiency performance measured across the soft-X-ray bandpass. This first prototype achieves ≈33% absolute diffraction efficiency from 0.2 – 1.2 keV, with an average peak-order efficiency of ≈17%. The fabrication approach, efficiency measurements, and path toward improved performance are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2022
Subtitle of host publicationUltraviolet to Gamma Ray
EditorsJan-Willem A. den Herder, Shouleh Nikzad, Kazuhiro Nakazawa
ISBN (Electronic)9781510653436
StatePublished - 2022
EventSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2022: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray - Montreal, United States
Duration: Jul 17 2022Jul 22 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2022: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
Country/TerritoryUnited States

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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