Bone Tumor Risk Stratification and Management System: A Consensus Guideline from the ACR Bone Reporting and Data System Committee

Jamie T. Caracciolo, Sayed Ali, Connie Y. Chang, Andrew J. Degnan, Donald J. Flemming, Eric R. Henderson, Mark J. Kransdorf, George Douglas Letson, John E. Madewell, Mark D. Murphey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The assessment and subsequent management of a potentially neoplastic bone lesion seen at diagnostic radiography is often complicated by diagnostic uncertainty and inconsistent management recommendations. Appropriate clinical management should be directed by risk of malignancy. Herein, the ACR-sponsored Bone Reporting and Data System (Bone-RADS) Committee, consisting of academic leaders in the fields of musculoskeletal oncology imaging and orthopedic oncology, presents the novel Bone-RADS scoring system to aid in risk assignment and provide risk-aligned management suggestions. When viewed in the proper clinical context, a newly identified bone lesion can be risk stratified as having very low, low, intermediate, or high risk of malignancy. Radiographic features predictive of risk are reviewed include margination, pattern of periosteal reaction, depth of endosteal erosion, pathological fracture, and extra-osseous soft tissue mass. Other radiographic features predictive of histopathology are also briefly discussed. To apply the Bone-RADS scoring system to a potentially neoplastic bone lesion, radiographic features predictive of risk are each given a point value. Point values are summed to yield a point total, which can be translated to a Bone-RADS score (1-4) with corresponding risk assignment (very low, low, intermediate, high). For each score, evidence-based and best practice consensus management suggestions are outlined. Examples of each Bone-RADS scores are presented, and a standardized diagnostic radiography report template is provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1044-1058
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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