Bottom-up coarse-grained (CG) models accurately describe the structure of homogeneous systems but sometimes provide limited transferability and a poor description of thermodynamic properties. Consequently, inhomogeneous systems present a severe challenge for bottom-up models. In this work, we examine bottom-up CG models for interfaces and inhomogeneous systems. We first analyze the effect of external fields upon the many-body potential of mean force. We also demonstrate that the multiscale CG (MS-CG) variational principle for modeling the external field corresponds to a generalization of the first Yvon-Born-Green equation. This provides an important connection with liquid state theory, as well as physical insight into the structure of interfaces and the resulting MS-CG models. We then develop and assess MS-CG models for a film of liquid methanol that is adsorbed on an attractive wall and in coexistence with its vapor phase. While pair-additive potentials provide unsatisfactory accuracy and transferability, the inclusion of local-density (LD) potentials dramatically improves the accuracy and transferability of the MS-CG model. The MS-CG model with LD potentials quite accurately describes the wall-liquid interface, the bulk liquid density, and the liquid-vapor interface while simultaneously providing a much improved description of the vapor phase. This model also provides an excellent description of the pair structure and pressure-density equation of state for the bulk liquid. Thus, LD potentials hold considerable promise for transferable bottom-up models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic properties of both bulk and interfacial systems.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry