Building bases of loop integrands

Jacob L. Bourjaily, Enrico Herrmann, Cameron Langer, Jaroslav Trnka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


We describe a systematic approach to the construction of loop-integrand bases at arbitrary loop-order, sufficient for the representation of general quantum field theories. We provide a graph-theoretic definition of ‘power-counting’ for multi-loop integrands beyond the planar limit, and show how this can be used to organize bases according to ultraviolet behavior. This allows amplitude integrands to be constructed iteratively. We illustrate these ideas with concrete applications. In particular, we describe complete integrand bases at two loops sufficient to represent arbitrary-multiplicity amplitudes in four (or fewer) dimensions in any massless quantum field theory with the ultraviolet behavior of the Standard Model or better. We also comment on possible extensions of our framework to arbitrary (including regulated) numbers of dimensions, and to theories with arbitrary mass spectra and charges. At three loops, we describe a basis sufficient to capture all ‘leading-(transcendental-)weight’ contributions of any four-dimensional quantum theory; for maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, this basis should be sufficient to represent all scattering amplitude integrands in the theory — for generic helicities and arbitrary multiplicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number116
JournalJournal of High Energy Physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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