Building-integrated photo-voltaics: Market challenges and bioinspired solutions

Nicoline F. Klysner, Torben A. Lenau, Akhlesh Lakhtakia

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


We have heavily relied for a few centuries on fossil fuels, which are basically dead plant material that was sequestered and converted millions of years ago, but the rapidly increasing energy demand combined with climatic challenges means we need to develop a large-scale supply of energy from sources without climatic impact. An obvious choice is to use solar energy directly when possible, and a complete global transition to solar energy by 2050 is realistic and cost effective. However, in order to find space for the large areas needed for harvesting solar energy by photovoltaic means, it would be advantageous if solar panels could be incorporated into urban buildings and free land for other uses. We undertook an analysis of the needs and requirements from the building industry that will allow for a more widespread use of solar panels on buildings, also referred to as Building Integrated Photo-Voltaics. Specifications and options for the visual incorporation of the solar panels in the building envelope were identified. Special attention was paid to (i) the role of modularization and standardization in architecture and (ii) the role of color and reflectance. A standardized mounting system is proposed that will allow for modular attachment of solar panels, making it easy to adjust, repair, and replace individual panels. Biological inspiration can be used to improve the system further. The forced-air ventilation of the tunnels of prairie dogs shows how to enhance cooling. The non-iridescent wings of butterflies of the Morpho genus, proposes how a low-cost structurally colored film can be inserted into the solar panel during its assembly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication XI
EditorsAkhlesh Lakhtakia, Mato Knez, Raul J. Martin-Palma
ISBN (Electronic)9781510640016
StatePublished - 2021
EventBioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication XI 2021 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: Mar 22 2021Mar 26 2021

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceBioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication XI 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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