Burden of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke Across the US From 1990 to 2019

Daniela Renedo, Julian N. Acosta, Audrey C. Leasure, Richa Sharma, Harlan M. Krumholz, Adam De Havenon, Fares Alahdab, Aleksandr Y. Aravkin, Zahra Aryan, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Sanjay Basu, Katrin Burkart, Kaleb Coberly, Michael H. Criqui, Xiaochen Dai, Rupak Desai, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Rajkumar Doshi, Islam Y. Elgendy, Valery L. FeiginIrina Filip, Mohamed M. Gad, Sherief Ghozy, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Rizwan Kalani, Ibraheem M. Karaye, Adnan Kisa, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Warren Lo, Tomislav Mestrovic, Ted R. Miller, Awoke Misganaw, Ali H. Mokdad, Christopher J.L. Murray, Zuhair S. Natto, Amir Radfar, Pradhum Ram, Gregory A. Roth, Allen Seylani, Nilay S. Shah, Purva Sharma, Aziz Sheikh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Suhang Song, Houman Sotoudeh, Dominique Vervoort, Cong Wang, Hong Xiao, Suowen Xu, Ramin Zand, Guido J. Falcone, Kevin N. Sheth

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Importance: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the US. Accurate and updated measures of stroke burden are needed to guide public health policies. Objective: To present burden estimates of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the US in 2019 and describe trends from 1990 to 2019 by age, sex, and geographic location. Design, Setting, and Participants: An in-depth cross-sectional analysis of the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study was conducted. The setting included the time period of 1990 to 2019 in the US. The study encompassed estimates for various types of strokes, including all strokes, ischemic strokes, intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs), and subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs). The 2019 Global Burden of Disease results were released on October 20, 2020. Exposures: In this study, no particular exposure was specifically targeted. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary focus of this analysis centered on both overall and age-standardized estimates, stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and DALYs per 100000 individuals. Results: In 2019, the US recorded 7.09 million prevalent strokes (4.07 million women [57.4%]; 3.02 million men [42.6%]), with 5.87 million being ischemic strokes (82.7%). Prevalence also included 0.66 million ICHs and 0.85 million SAHs. Although the absolute numbers of stroke cases, mortality, and DALYs surged from 1990 to 2019, the age-standardized rates either declined or remained steady. Notably, hemorrhagic strokes manifested a substantial increase, especially in mortality, compared with ischemic strokes (incidence of ischemic stroke increased by 13% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), 14.2%-11.9%]; incidence of ICH increased by 39.8% [95% UI, 38.9%-39.7%]; incidence of SAH increased by 50.9% [95% UI, 49.2%-52.6%]). The downturn in stroke mortality plateaued in the recent decade. There was a discernible heterogeneity in stroke burden trends, with older adults (50-74 years) experiencing a decrease in incidence in coastal areas (decreases up to 3.9% in Vermont), in contrast to an uptick observed in younger demographics (15-49 years) in the South and Midwest US (with increases up to 8.4% in Minnesota). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the declining age-standardized stroke rates over the past 3 decades suggest progress in managing stroke-related outcomes. However, the increasing absolute burden of stroke, coupled with a notable rise in hemorrhagic stroke, suggests an evolving and substantial public health challenge in the US. Moreover, the significant disparities in stroke burden trends across different age groups and geographic locations underscore the necessity for region- and demography-specific interventions and policies to effectively mitigate the multifaceted and escalating burden of stroke in the country.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)394-404
Number of pages11
JournalJAMA neurology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 8 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

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