Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies

Göktug˘ Morçöl, Lorlene Hoyt, Jack W. Meek, Ulf Zimmermann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses business improvement districts (BID) from different theoretical perspectives: A political-economic and historical perspective, polycentrism, a policy transfer perspective, an economic development perspective, and a legal perspective. It shows that community benefit districts, entities similar to BIDs, constitute a form of private governments and offers an assessment from a polycentric theoretical perspective. The book examines the ideological basis and context of the introduction of BIDs in Britain, but their assessment has implications beyond Britain. It argues that the BID is a model of urban revitalization that policy entrepreneurs—such as property owners, business owners, local governments, public agencies, elected officials, private consultancy firms, international organizations, and researchers—have deliberately transferred, both intra- and internationally. The book demonstrates that BIDs are spreading around the world, and that there are some commonalities in their applications in different national contexts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBusiness Improvement Districts
Subtitle of host publicationResearch, Theories, and Controversies
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9781351572866
ISBN (Print)9781420045765
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Social Sciences


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