Bystanders' reactions to witnessing repetitive abuse experiences

Gregory R. Janson, Jolynn V. Carney, Richard J. Hazier, Insoo Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at the time these events occurred. Multiple regression analysis identified significant predictors of distress levels, with intensity of abuse being the strongest. Additional results and implications of findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)319-326
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Counseling and Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology


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