Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

Takanari Ouchi, Hojong Kim, Brian L. Spatocco, Donald R. Sadoway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10999
JournalNature communications
StatePublished - Mar 22 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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