Mining-induced coal dust causes various respiratory diseases to mine workers, such as coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). Current available underground monitors are expensive, heavy and only measure mass concentration. These disadvantages limit them for regulatory sample monitoring purposes only while personal exposure levels for most miners remain unknown, risking miners to potential overexposures. Low-cost light scattering PM sensors offer a potential solution to this problem with capability of high spatio-temporal resolution PM characterization. However, these sensors require careful calibration before they can be applied in mining environments. There is basically no comprehensive study in the literature using a standard protocol assessing these sensors for coal dust monitoring. With the aim of calibrating the PMS5003 sensors for coal dust monitoring, we design the calibration method and system to calibrate these low-cost PM sensors coal dust monitoring. Working principles of present coal dust monitor and low-cost sensors are presented in detail. The linear regression calibration model which is used for the sensor calibration is further described. Sensor calibration and evaluation protocols are comprehensively compared and discussed. This investigation reveals the feasibility of low-cost sensors for real-time personal coal dust monitoring in underground coal mines.