Drill-interseeding cover crops into standing corn (V3 to V5 growth stage) provides opportunities for increasing functional diversity in cropping systems by facilitating use of cover crop mixtures that include grass, legume, and brassica species. Designing herbicide-based weed control programs that negotiate tradeoffs between crop protection and environmental goals when interseeding mixtures remains a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use greenhouse-based dose-response assays to describe the relative sensitivity of 12 cover crop species that differ in traits, including taxonomic group and seed mass, to chloroacetamide (acetochlor, dimethenamid, S-metolachlor; Group 15 herbicides as categorized by the Weed Science Society of America) and pyrazole (pyroxasulfone; Group 15) herbicides. Nonlinear models were fit, and effective doses were estimated (ED50) to compare relative sensitivities of cover crop species to each herbicide. Brassica species (winter canola, Dwarf Essex rape, daikon radish) were less sensitive than small-seeded legumes (medium red clover, crimson clover) and grasses (annual ryegrass) in response to each chloroacetamide, but similar in response to pyroxasulfone. Austrian winter pea, a large-seeded legume, was less sensitive to each herbicide compared to other legumes (crimson clover, medium red clover, hairy vetch). Cereal rye and triticale were less sensitive to dimethenamid, S-metolachlor, and pyroxasulfone compared to annual ryegrass, but similar sensitivities were observed for acetochlor. These results suggest that relative differences in sensitivity to chloroacetamide and pyrazole herbicides could be exploited when designing cover crop mixtures for interseeding. It is imperative, however, to use these findings in conjunction with field-based observations of cover crop injury potential in interseeded systems.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science