Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 2 - Issues during and after device implantation and unresolved questions

Jeroen J. Bax, Theodore Abraham, S. Serge Barold, Ole A. Breithardt, Jeffrey W.H. Fung, Stephane Garrigue, John Gorcsan, David L. Hayes, David A. Kass, Juhani Knuuti, Christophe Leclercq, Cecilia Linde, Daniel B. Mark, Mark J. Monaghan, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Martin J. Schalij, Christophe Stellbrink, Cheuk Man Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

193 Scopus citations


Encouraged by the clinical success of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the implantation rate has increased exponentially, although several limitations and unresolved issues of CRT have been identified. This review concerns issues that are encountered during implantation of CRT devices, including the role of electroanatomical mapping, whether CRT implantation should be accompanied by simultaneous atrioventricular nodal ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation, procedural complications, and when to consider surgical left ventricular lead positioning. Furthermore, (echocardiographic) CRT optimization and assessment of CRT benefits after implantation are highlighted. Also, controversial issues such as the potential value of CRT in patients with mild heart failure or narrow QRS complex are addressed. Finally, open questions concerning when to combine CRT with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and the cost-effectiveness of CRT are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2168-2182
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 20 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 2 - Issues during and after device implantation and unresolved questions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this