Carotid Cavernous Fistulas

Mohammad El-Ghanem, Muhammad Niazi, Kevin Cockroft

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are pathologic connections between the cavernous segment of the carotid artery and the cavernous venous sinus. It involves shunting blood from the internal carotid artery (ICA) and/or the external carotid artery (ECA) to the cavernous sinus (CS) (Hamby, J Neurosurg 21:859–866, 1964). The majority of the clinical signs observed in patients with CCFs are the result of hemodynamic changes in the cavernous sinus leading to increased pressure and engorgement of the draining veins (Korkmazer, World J Radiol 5:143–155, 2013). Treatment options for CCFs have evolved over the years. Starting with ligation of the common carotid artery which subsequently progressed to ICA ligation, more options in CCF ttreatment, have evloved with time. Advancement in neurointerventional technology, more specifically the invention of balloon catheters, has introduced a new era of neuroendovascular treatment modalities of CCFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNeuromethods
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages22
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

ISSN (Print)0893-2336
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6045

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Neuroscience


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