Cash rules everything around me: The expansion of NCAA name, image, and likeness policy among the states

Darrell Lovell, Daniel J. Mallinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Name, image, and likeness (NIL) policies have expanded rapidly in the United States in the past three years. Since the state of California passed a law allowing college student athletes to profit off their NIL, 41 states have either adopted or proposed similar legislation. Politics, the presence of high-level football programs, revenue, and geography have shaped this rapid expansion that has significant effects on higher education administration. Using survival analysis, this article explains the expansion of NIL policy and finds the key factors leading to its rapid diffusion. We find that the significant drivers of NIL adoption include high level NCAA football and the political motives of the state adopting that contributes to civic pride. The major findings suggest that this focus on football and its connection to civic pride and resulting political decisions creates opportunities and challenges for higher education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)338-363
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Public and Nonprofit Affairs
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Public Administration
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management

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