Here, we described the in vitro biocompatibility of a novel nanostructured surface composed of PTFE as a potential polymer for the prevention of adverse host reactions to implanted devices. The foreign body response is characterized at the tissue-material interface by several layers of macrophages and large multinucleated cells known as foreign body giant cells (FBGC), and a fibrous capsule. The nanofibers of nanofibrous PTFE (nPTFE) range in size from 20 to 30 nm in width and 3-4 mm in length. Glass surfaces coated with nPTFE (produced by jet-blowing of PTFE 601A) were tested under in vitro conditions to characterize the amount of protein adsorption, cell adhesion, and cell viability. We have shown that nPTFE adsorbs 495 ± 100 ng of bovine serum albumin (BSA) per cm2. This level was considerably higher than planar PTFE, most likely due to the increase in hydrophobicity and available surface area, both a result of the nanoarchitecture. Endothelial cells and macrophages were used to determine the degree of cell adsorption on the surface of the nanostructured polymer. Both cell types were significantly more round and occupied less area on nPTFE as compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Furthermore, a larger majority of the cells on the nPTFE were dead compared to TCPS, at dead-to-live ratios of 778 ± 271 to 1 and 23 ± 5.6 to 1, respectively. Since there was a high amount of cell death (due to either apoptosis or necrosis), and the foreign body response is a form of chronic inflammation, an 18 cytokine Luminex panel was performed on the supernatant from macrophages adherent on nPTFE and TCPS. As a positive control for inflammation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to macrophages on TCPS to estimate the maximum inflammation response of the macrophages. From the data presented with respect to IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-5, we concluded that nPTFE is nonimmunogenic and should not yield a huge inflammatory response in vivo, and cell death observed on the surface of nPTFE was likely due to apoptosis resulting from the inability of cells to spread on these surface. On the basis of the production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-4, and GM-CSF, we concluded that FBGC formation on nPTFE may be decreased as compared to materials known to elicit FBGC formation in vivo.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Materials Science
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces