Cellular Immunoprofile of Peritoneal Environment During a HIPEC Procedure

Jan Franko, Rushin Brahmbhatt, May Tee, Shankar Raman, Benjamin Ferrel, Marc Gorvet, Matthew Andres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: We characterized the peritoneal immune cellular profile during cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in this pilot study. Methods: We prospectively performed flow cytometric analysis of peritoneal fluid collected at laparotomy and during HIPEC at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min. Analysis consisted of standard flow cytometric leukocyte gating and the use of antibodies for stem cells, B lymphocytes, T-helper, T-suppressor, and natural killer (NK) cells. Results: The mean peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) score was 19.8 ± 11.5 (median 19). Twelve patients had a completeness of cytoreduction (CCR) score of 0–1, and three patients had a CCR score of ≥ 2 (20%). The proportion of peritoneal NK cells remained stable (p = 0.655) throughout perfusion. The CD4/CD8 ratio (p = 0.019) and granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.018) evolved during cytoreduction, with no further change during HIPEC. Two distinct temporal patterns of peritoneal T lymphocytes became evident (the ‘high’ and ‘low’ CD4/CD8 ratio groups) and patients maintained their high versus low peritoneal CD4/CD8 ratio status throughout the duration of HIPEC. High CD4/CD8 was associated with longer cytoreduction (p = 0.019) and borderline higher PCI score (p = 0.058). No association was identified with age (p = 0.131), sex (p = 1.000), CCR status (p = 0.580), occurrence of complication (p = 0.282), or ascites volume (p = 0.713). Conclusion: The cellular immunoprofile of peritoneal fluid during HIPEC is stable but changes during cytoreduction. Two distinct immune groups emerged, based on CD4/CD8 ratios in the peritoneal perfusate. Further studies are warranted to evaluate peritoneal immunity and the clinical significance of novel peritoneal immune phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5005-5013
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Surgical Oncology
Issue number13
StatePublished - Dec 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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