The number of transportation construction projects has increased in the U.S. over the past several decades, and inspection challenges have increased proportionally or at an even higher rate. Therefore, it is important to identify these challenges and to offer appropriate inspection strategies to avoid project failures. In this study, the challenges of transportation construction inspections were identified, and strategies for tackling these challenges were proposed. Several national U.S. inspection documents, peer-reviewed papers, and other types of publications were thoroughly reviewed, and the potential inspection challenges of transportation projects were identified. Then, the management strategies that lead to effective inspection processes and successful projects were identified. The results of this study demonstrated that the current practices for the inspection of transportation construction projects need to be thoroughly reviewed and improved upon. The list of potential inspection challenges and management strategies determined by this research can assist project managers and inspectors allocate resources to transportation construction activities more efficiently and achieve higher productivity rates.