Characterization of LipS1 and LipS2 from Thermococcus kodakarensis: Proteins Annotated as Biotin Synthases, which Together Catalyze Formation of the Lipoyl Cofactor

Syam Sundar Neti, Debangsu Sil, Douglas M. Warui, Olga A. Esakova, Amy E. Solinski, Dante A. Serrano, Carsten Krebs, Squire J. Booker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lipoic acid is an eight-carbon sulfur-containing biomolecule that functions primarily as a cofactor in several multienzyme complexes. It is biosynthesized as an attachment to a specific lysyl residue on one of the subunits of these multienzyme complexes. In Escherichia coli and many other organisms, this biosynthetic pathway involves two dedicated proteins: octanoyltransferase (LipB) and lipoyl synthase (LipA). LipB transfers an n-octanoyl chain from the octanoyl-acyl carrier protein to the target lysyl residue, and then, LipA attaches two sulfur atoms (one at C6 and one at C8) to give the final lipoyl cofactor. All classical lipoyl synthases (LSs) are radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes, which use an [Fe4S4] cluster to reductively cleave SAM to generate a 5′-deoxyadenosyl 5′-radical. Classical LSs also contain a second [Fe4S4] cluster that serves as the source of both appended sulfur atoms. Recently, a novel pathway for generating the lipoyl cofactor was reported. This pathway replaces the canonical LS with two proteins, LipS1 and LipS2, which act together to catalyze formation of the lipoyl cofactor. In this work, we further characterize LipS1 and LipS2 biochemically and spectroscopically. Although LipS1 and LipS2 were previously annotated as biotin synthases, we show that both proteins, unlike E. coli biotin synthase, contain two [Fe4S4] clusters. We identify the cluster ligands to both iron-sulfur clusters in both proteins and show that LipS2 acts only on an octanoyl-containing substrate, while LipS1 acts only on an 8-mercaptooctanoyl-containing substrate. Therefore, similarly to E. coli biotin synthase and in contrast to E. coli LipA, sulfur attachment takes place initially at the terminal carbon (C8) and then at the C6 methylene carbon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-520
Number of pages12
JournalACS Bio and Med Chem Au
Volume2
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 19 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Drug Discovery
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Science

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