Charismatic, ideological, & pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership: A critical review and agenda for future research

Jeffrey B. Lovelace, Brett H. Neely, Julian B. Allen, Samuel T. Hunter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Criticisms of the dominant leadership perspectives in the literature are increasing and, as such, a growing number of scholars are calling for more complex and conceptually sound theories of leadership. With a multi-faceted perspective on effective leadership, detailed conceptual underpinnings, and increasing body of empirical support, the Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership has the potential to address many of these concerns and substantively contribute to our understanding of effective leadership. Despite such advantages, however, wide scale proliferation of the model remains elusive. As such, this effort provides the first comprehensive review of the CIP model to analyze its potential to expand our understanding of leadership in science and practice. In doing so this review frames and organizes the existing CIP literature, identifies key strengths of the model, addresses key limitations of the model, and outlines future research opportunities that would benefit from adopting a CIP perspective.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)96-110
Number of pages15
JournalLeadership Quarterly
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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