Background: Parent-child relationship quality (PCRQ) and parental monitoring (PM) are associated with adolescent behavior problems following child maltreatment (CM). Whether these associations are best characterized as between (trait) or within-person (state) differences is unknown. Objective: Disaggregate between and within-person effects for PCRQ and PM on adolescent behavior problems and test whether these effects vary as a function of prior CM. Participants and setting: Participants (n = 941) are from the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Methods: Multi-level modeling was employed using PCRQ, PM, and adolescent behaviors assessed at ages 12, 14, and 16 and confirmed CM prior to age 12. Results: At the between-person level, adolescents with higher average levels of PCRQ and PM had significantly lower initial levels of externalizing (b = −9.47 and −5.54, respectively, p's < 0.05; possible range 0–66) and internalizing behaviors (b = −4.45 and −6.41, respectively, p's < 0.001; possible range 0–62). At the within-person level, greater declines in externalizing and internalizing behaviors were found when individuals reported higher-than-usual levels of PCRQ (b = −4.99 and −2.59, respectively, for externalizing and internalizing, p's < 0.001) and PM (b = −3.58 and −1.69, respectively, for externalizing and internalizing, p's < 0.001). There was an interaction between PM and CM on internalizing behaviors over time (b = −1.15, p = 0.026). Conclusions: There are between and within-person effects of PCRQ and PM on adolescent behavior problems. Adolescents with CM histories and low levels of PM may be at risk for sustained internalizing behaviors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health