Children's color trails test 1 2: Test-retest reliability and factorial validity

Antolin M. Llorente, Robert G. Voigt, Jane Williams, J. Kennard Frailey, Paul Satz, Louis F. D'Elia

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29 Scopus citations


This investigation examined the test-retest reliability and the factorial validity of the Children's Color Trails Test 1 2 (CCTT) using two distinct and independent studies and their respective research samples. The reliability of the CCTT was evaluated in a study with 6-12-year-old children (n = 54) strictly selected and diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from an interventional protocol using test-retest coefficients at 8- and 16-week time intervals. Factorial validity was investigated using groups of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n = 137), children with other types of trauma than brain or head injury (Other Injury) (n = 132), and healthy controls (n = 114) from a protocol assessing the neuropsychological sequelae of traumatic brain injury. The results revealed completion time test-retest reliability in the moderate range, which may be considered modest (rtt =.46-.68) in this sample of children with ADHD. Interference reliability coefficients were greater and in the moderate-high range (rtt =.75-.78). Factorial analytic results revealed a three-factor structure solution for all three groups (TBI, Other Injury, and controls). As a result of CCTT's factorial loadings, Factor 1 was labeled speed of perceptual tracking and susceptibility to interference, Factor 2 was labeled inattention and impulsivity, and Factor 3 was labeled simple inattention. Relative limitations and strengths associated with this investigation including practice effects associated with repeated CCTT administrations also were addressed within the context of the extant findings and existing trail-making test literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)645-660
Number of pages16
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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