CiteSeer: an automatic citation indexing system

C. L. Giles, K. D. Bollacker, S. Lawrence

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

640 Citations (SciVal)


We present CiteSeer: an autonomous citation indexing system which indexes academic literature in electronic format (e.g. Postscript files on the Web). CiteSeer understands how to parse citations, identify citations to the same paper in different formats, and identify the context of citations in the body of articles. CiteSeer provides most of the advantages of traditional (manually constructed) citation indexes (e.g. the ISI citation indexes), including: literature retrieval by following citation links (e.g. by providing a list of papers that cite a given paper), the evaluation and ranking of papers, authors, journals, etc. based on the number of citations, and the identification of research trends. CiteSeer has many advantages over traditional citation indexes, including the ability to create more up-to-date databases which are not limited to a preselected set of journals or restricted by journal publication delays, completely autonomous operation with a corresponding reduction in cost, and powerful interactive browsing of the literature using the context of citations. Given a particular paper of interest, CiteSeer can display the context of how the paper is cited in subsequent publications. This context may contain a brief summary of the paper, another author's response to the paper, or subsequent work which builds upon the original article. CiteSeer allows the location of papers by keyword search or by citation links. Papers related to a given paper can be located using common citation information or word vector similarity. CiteSeer will soon be available for public use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 1998
EventProceedings of the 1998 3rd ACM Conference on Digital Libraries - Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Duration: Jun 23 1998Jun 26 1998


OtherProceedings of the 1998 3rd ACM Conference on Digital Libraries
CityPittsburgh, PA, USA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science
  • General Social Sciences


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