Climate action with revenue recycling has benefits for poverty, inequality and well-being

Mark Budolfson, Francis Dennig, Frank Errickson, Simon Feindt, Maddalena Ferranna, Marc Fleurbaey, David Klenert, Ulrike Kornek, Kevin Kuruc, Aurélie Méjean, Wei Peng, Noah Scovronick, Dean Spears, Fabian Wagner, Stéphane Zuber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Existing estimates of optimal climate policy ignore the possibility that carbon tax revenues could be used in a progressive way; model results therefore typically imply that near-term climate action comes at some cost to the poor. Using the Nested Inequalities Climate Economy (NICE) model, we show that an equal per capita refund of carbon tax revenues implies that achieving a 2 °C target can pay large and immediate dividends for improving well-being, reducing inequality and alleviating poverty. In an optimal policy calculation that weighs the benefits against the costs of mitigation, the recommended policy is characterized by aggressive near-term climate action followed by a slower climb towards full decarbonization; this pattern—which is driven by a carbon revenue Laffer curve—prevents runaway warming while also preserving tax revenues for redistribution. Accounting for these dynamics corrects a long-standing bias against strong immediate climate action in the optimal policy literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1111-1116
Number of pages6
JournalNature Climate Change
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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