Extreme temperature fluctuations affect the interaction dynamics of Cochliobolus lunatus through temperature-dependent virulence, virulence differentiation and induced-virulence which poses a major threat to global food security. The relationship between higher temperature and pathogenicity of C. lunatus on reported hosts are poorly understood. In this study, temperature stress was applied on C. lunatus to investigate the correlation among the different types of conidia. Additionally, a comparative dissection of the invasion process, infection structures and conidial germination pattern on four different Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) cultivars were performed. Based on microscopic examination, it was found that C. lunatus adopts different hyphae morphology and septation pattern at different temperature regimes and produce different types of conidia. The study showed that four-celled conidia are overproduced at elevated temperature (>30°C) than one, two, three and five-celled conidia. Our finding revealed that C. lunatus conidia exhibit bipolar germination (>14.67%, P<. 0.05), unipolar germination (>35.33%, P<. 0.05), penetrate subcutaneously via epidermal anticlinal cell wall (>0.33%, P<0.05) and differentially form appressoria-like structures during colonization of four different potato cultivars. Importantly, it is shown that unipolar germination and bipolar germination in C. lunatus are independently occurring phenomenon irrespective of the host. It is confirmed that C. lunatus adopt different but highly successful strategies on four different potato cultivars to incite brown-to-black leaf spot disease. Altogether, our data showed that increase in temperature enhances C. lunatus virulence on different potato cultivars irrespective of their inherent thermotolerant traits.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases