Code protection for resource-constrained embedded devices

H. Saputra, G. Chen, R. Brooks, N. Vijaykrishnan, M. Kandemir, M. J. Irwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


While the machine neutral Java bytecodes are attractive for code distribution in the highly heterogeneous embedded domain, the well-documented and standardized features also make it difficult to protect these codes. In fact, there are several tools to reverse engineer Java bytecodes, The focus of this work is the design of a substitution-based bytecode obfuscation approach that prevents code from being executed on unauthorized devices. Furthermore, we also improve the resilience of this substitution-based approach to frequency-based attacks. Using various Java class files, we show that our approach is 2.5 to 3 times less computationally intensive as compared to a traditional encryption based approach. Our experiments reveal that the protected class files could not execute on unauthorized clients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)240-248
Number of pages9
JournalACM SIGPLAN Notices
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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