Cold Sintering: A Paradigm Shift for Processing and Integration of Ceramics

Jing Guo, Hanzheng Guo, Amanda L. Baker, Michael T. Lanagan, Elizabeth R. Kupp, Gary L. Messing, Clive A. Randall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

345 Scopus citations


This paper describes a sintering technique for ceramics and ceramic-based composites, using water as a transient solvent to effect densification (i.e. sintering) at temperatures between room temperature and 200 °C. To emphasize the incredible reduction in sintering temperature relative to conventional thermal sintering this new approach is named the “Cold Sintering Process” (CSP). Basically CSP uses a transient aqueous environment to effect densification by a mediated dissolution–precipitation process. CSP of NaCl, alkali molybdates and V2O5with small concentrations of water are described in detail, but the process is extended and demonstrated for a diverse range of chemistries (oxides, carbonates, bromides, fluorides, chlorides and phosphates), multiple crystal structures, and multimaterial applications. Furthermore, the properties of selected CSP samples are demonstrated to be essentially equivalent as samples made by conventional thermal sintering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11457-11461
Number of pages5
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number38
StatePublished - Sep 12 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)


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