Combustion of a TMEDA/WFNA hypergolic in a bipropellant rocket engine

Joshua M. Hollingshead, Morgan Litzinger, Dimitris Kiaoulias, Lucas M. Eckenrode, Jeffrey D. Moore, Grant A. Risha, Richard A. Yetter

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

7 Scopus citations


The focus of this experimental research was to design and fabricate a fluid delivery system and bipropellant engine to characterize the combustion performance of non-toxic reactants. In this study, non-toxic or “green” reactants were classified as reactants that do not possess chlorine-containing compounds. The selected reactants consisted of blends of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) fuel and white fuming nitric acid (WFNA) oxidizer, fired in a combustion chamber using different styles of impinging igniter designs to evaluate whether TMEDA was a viable fuel replacement for hydrazine. Specific operating conditions such as fuel and oxidizer mass flow rates and chamber pressure were varied throughout the experimental matrix. The combustion performance parameters of interest were combustion efficiency, thrust, and specific impulse. Results among the three injector designs with similar mass flow rates and chamber volume showed an unlike doublet operating at an equivalence ratio near unity had the greatest combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiencies of TMEDA/WFNA were demonstrated at 78% for a constant chamber volume, with room for improvement in characteristic length.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition, 2019
PublisherAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA
ISBN (Print)9781624105906
StatePublished - 2019
EventAIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition, 2019 - Indianapolis, United States
Duration: Aug 19 2019Aug 22 2019

Publication series

NameAIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition, 2019


ConferenceAIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition, 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Energy
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


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