Comparing enhancements to well-child visits in the prevention of obesity: ENCIRCLE cluster-randomized controlled trial

Lisa Bailey-Davis, Amy M. Moore, Melissa N. Poulsen, David A. Dzewaltowski, Stacey Cummings, Laina R. DeCriscio, Jennifer Franceschelli Hosterman, Daniel Huston, H. Lester Kirchner, Shawnee Lutcher, Carolyn McCabe, Gregory J. Welk, Jennifer S. Savage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Obesity disproportionally impacts rural, lower-income children in the United States. Primary care providers are well-positioned to engage parents in early obesity prevention, yet there is a lack of evidence regarding the most effective care delivery models. The ENCIRCLE study, a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial, will respond to this gap by testing the comparative effectiveness of standard care well-child visits (WCV) versus two enhancements: adding a patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure (PRO WCV) and PRO WCV plus Food Care (telehealth coaching and a grocery store tour). Methods: A total of 2,025 parents and their preschool-aged children (20–60 months of age) will be recruited from 24 Geisinger primary care clinics, where providers are randomized to the standard WCV, PRO WCV, or PRO WCV plus Food Care intervention arms. The PRO WCV includes the standard WCV plus collection of the PRO—the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) risk assessment—from parents. Parents complete the PRO in the patient-portal or in the clinic (own device, tablet, or kiosk), receive real-time feedback, and select priority topics to discuss with the provider. These results are integrated into the child’s electronic health record to inform personalized preventive counseling by providers. PRO WCV plus Food Care includes referrals to community health professionals who deliver evidence-based obesity prevention and food resource management interventions via telehealth following the WCV. The primary study outcome is change in child body mass index z-score (BMIz), based on the World Health Organization growth standards, 12 months post-baseline WCV. Additional outcomes include percent of children with overweight and obesity, raw BMI, BMI50, BMIz extended, parent involvement in counseling, health behaviors, food resource management, and implementation process measures. Discussion: Study findings will inform health care systems’ choices about effective care delivery models to prevent childhood obesity among a high-risk population. Additionally, dissemination will be informed by an evaluation of mediating, moderating, and implementation factors. Trial registration: identifier (NCT04406441); Registered May 28, 2020.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2429
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparing enhancements to well-child visits in the prevention of obesity: ENCIRCLE cluster-randomized controlled trial'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this