Objective To compare HIV prevalence estimates from routine programme data in antenatal care (ANC) clinics in western Kenya with HIV prevalence estimates in a general population sample in the era of universal test and treat (UTT). Methods The study was conducted in the area covered by the Siaya Health Demographic Surveillance System (Siaya HDSS) in western Kenya and used data from ANC clinics and the general population. ANC data (n = 1,724) were collected in 2018 from 13 clinics located within the HDSS. The general population was a random sample of women of reproductive age (15–49) who reside in the Siaya HDSS and participated in an HIV sero-prevalence survey in 2018 (n = 2,019). Total and age-specific HIV prevalence estimates were produced from both datasets and demographic decomposition methods were used to quantify the contribution of the differences in age distributions and age-specific HIV prevalence to the total HIV prevalence estimates. Results Total HIV prevalence was 18.0% (95% CI 16.3–19.9%) in the ANC population compared with 18.4% (95% CI 16.8–20.2%) in the general population sample. At most ages, HIV prevalence was higher in the ANC population than in the general population. The age distribution of the ANC population was younger than that of the general population, and because HIV prevalence increases with age, this reduced the total HIV prevalence among ANC attendees relative to prevalence standardised to the general population age distribution. Conclusion In the era of UTT, total HIV prevalence among ANC attendees and the general population were comparable, but age-specific HIV prevalence was higher in the ANC population in most age groups. The expansion of treatment may have led to changes in both the fertility of women living with HIV and their use of ANC services, and our results lend support to the assertion that the relationship between ANC and general population HIV prevalence estimates are highly dynamic.
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