Complex molecular regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase

Izel Tekin, Robert Roskoski, Nurgul Carkaci-Salli, Kent E. Vrana

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, is strictly controlled by several interrelated regulatory mechanisms. Enzyme synthesis is controlled by epigenetic factors, transcription factors, and mRNA levels. Enzyme activity is regulated by end-product feedback inhibition. Phosphorylation of the enzyme is catalyzed by several protein kinases and dephosphorylation is mediated by two protein phosphatases that establish a sensitive process for regulating enzyme activity on a minute-to-minute basis. Interactions between tyrosine hydroxylase and other proteins introduce additional layers to the already tightly controlled production of catecholamines. Tyrosine hydroxylase degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome coupled pathway represents yet another mechanism of regulation. Here, we revisit the myriad mechanisms that regulate tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity and highlight their physiological importance in the control of catecholamine biosynthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1451-1481
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Neural Transmission
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 22 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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