Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, is strictly controlled by several interrelated regulatory mechanisms. Enzyme synthesis is controlled by epigenetic factors, transcription factors, and mRNA levels. Enzyme activity is regulated by end-product feedback inhibition. Phosphorylation of the enzyme is catalyzed by several protein kinases and dephosphorylation is mediated by two protein phosphatases that establish a sensitive process for regulating enzyme activity on a minute-to-minute basis. Interactions between tyrosine hydroxylase and other proteins introduce additional layers to the already tightly controlled production of catecholamines. Tyrosine hydroxylase degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome coupled pathway represents yet another mechanism of regulation. Here, we revisit the myriad mechanisms that regulate tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity and highlight their physiological importance in the control of catecholamine biosynthesis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Biological Psychiatry