Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is a common complication during pregnancy that affects approximately 10% of pregnancies and is responsible for nearly 14% of maternal deaths worldwide. It affects the mother and the fetus simultaneously, sometimes putting the health of the mother and the fetus at odds with each other. It may present with only hypertension and proteinuria or with life-threatening complications in the mother such as eclampsia; stroke; acute pulmonary edema; acute renal failure; disseminated intravascular coagulation; placental abruption; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome; pregnancy loss; and fetal growth restriction and prematurity resulting from the frequent need of delivering preterm in the fetus. In this review, we aimed to describe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, mainly preeclampsia and chronic hypertension in pregnancy, by discussing the pathophysiology, the central role of abnormal placentation, the release of antiangiogenic factors in the circulation and immunological factors, the clinical outcome in the mother and the fetus, and the diagnostic criteria and principles of management of both the conditions. We also discuss possible screening methods and prevention of preeclampsia using low-dose aspirin and eclampsia prophylaxis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Medicine