Concentration levels of disinfection by-products in 14 swimming pools of China

Xiaolu Zhang, Hongwei Yang, Xiaofeng Wang, Yu Zhao, Xiaomao Wang, Yuefeng Xie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Swimming has become a popular exercising and recreational activity in China but little is known about the disinfection by-products (DBPs) concentration levels in the pools. This study was conducted as a survey of the DBPs in China swimming pools, and to establish the correlations between the DBP concentrations and the pool water quality parameters. A total of 14 public indoor and outdoor pools in Beijing were included in the survey. Results showed that the median concentrations for total trihalomethanes (TTHM), nine haloacetic acids (HAA9), chloral hydrate (CH), four haloacetonitriles (HAN4), 1,1-dichloropropanone, 1,1,1-trichloropropanone and trichloronitromethane were 33.8, 109.1, 30.1, 3.2, 0.3, 0.6 μg·L−1 and below detection limit, respectively. The TTHM and HAA9 levels were in the same magnitude of that in many regions of the world. The levels of CH and nitrogenous DBPs were greatly higher than and were comparable to that in typical drinking water, respectively. Disinfection by chlorine dioxide or trichloroisocyanuric acid could substantially lower the DBP levels. The outdoor pools had higher TTHM and HAA9 levels, but lower trihaloacetic acids (THAA) levels than the indoor pools. The TTHM and HAA9 concentrations could be moderately correlated with the free chlorine and total chlorine residuals but not with the total organic carbon (TOC) contents. When the DBP concentration levels from other survey studies were also included for statistical analysis, a good correlation could be established between the TTHM levels and the TOC concentration. The influence of chlorine residual on DBP levels could also be significant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)995-1003
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Environmental Science


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