Constant observation practices in the general hospital setting: A national survey

Linda L.M. Worley, Elisabeth J.S. Kunkel, David F. Gitlin, Lynette A. Menefee, Gregory Conway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


The authors conducted a national survey of 355 general medical/surgical hospitals to assess constant observation (CO) practices. The authors assessed overall use, expense, staffing patterns, funding strategies, and cost-saving interventions. Virtually all responding hospitals (N = 102) reported using some form of CO. Several hospitals reported significant decreases in co expenditures after the implementation of cost-saving interventions (the largest annual decrease reported was $340,000). Cost-saving interventions included utilizing consolidated bed spaces, relocating patients near nursing stations, placing at-risk patients in bed enclosure devices, and regularly assisting patients to the toilet. In addition, less costly personnel were hired, and volunteers and/or patient family members provided CO (or were required to assist with the cost of CO). Finally, hospital staff were educated about the costs and the appropriate use of CO. They were also taught to recognize and effectively treat delirium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)301-310
Number of pages10
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Constant observation practices in the general hospital setting: A national survey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this