Constrained sintering of low-temperature Co-fired ceramics

Aravind Mohanram, Sang Ho Lee, Gary L. Messing, David J. Green

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77 Scopus citations


This paper discusses the effect of uniaxial compressive stress and pressureless constraint on the microstructure, density, and shrinkage anisotropy during the sintering of two commercial low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) systems, i.e., Heraeus CT2000 (CT) and DuPont 951Tape (DU). Under uniaxial compression, the ratio of axial to transverse shrinkage of DU is significantly higher than that of CT. A simple linear viscous theory was used to estimate the change in the strain rates produced by the external stress and the stress required to produce zero shrinkage. The theory was found to overestimate the measured stress-induced strain rates. The uniaxial compressive stress required for zero overall shrinkage was estimated to be ∼60 kPa for DU and 80 kPa for CT. The estimate for the DU materials was in good agreement with the experimental data, but there was significant deviation for the CT material. Higher viscosity and higher constraining stresses led to lower densities in pressure-less constrained CT specimens compared with DU.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1923-1929
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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