Constraining High-energy Neutrino Emission from Supernovae with IceCube

R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, V. A. Balagopal, M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. BayJ. J. Beatty, K. H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, K. Jayakumar, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J.P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J.Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B.M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O’Dell, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O’Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, A. Stasik, R. Stein, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, P. Zhelnin

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Abstract

Core-collapse supernovae are a promising potential high-energy neutrino source class. We test for correlation between seven years of IceCube neutrino data and a catalog containing more than 1000 core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and IIP and a sample of stripped-envelope supernovae. We search both for neutrino emission from individual supernovae as well as for combined emission from the whole supernova sample, through a stacking analysis. No significant spatial or temporal correlation of neutrinos with the cataloged supernovae was found. All scenarios were tested against the background expectation and together yield an overall p-value of 93%; therefore, they show consistency with the background only. The derived upper limits on the total energy emitted in neutrinos are 1.7 × 1048 erg for stripped-envelope supernovae, 2.8 × 1048 erg for type IIP, and 1.3 × 1049 erg for type IIn SNe, the latter disfavoring models with optimistic assumptions for neutrino production in interacting supernovae. We conclude that stripped-envelope supernovae and supernovae of type IIn do not contribute more than 14.6% and 33.9%, respectively, to the diffuse neutrino flux in the energy range of about [ 103-105] GeV, assuming that the neutrino energy spectrum follows a power-law with an index of −2.5. Under the same assumption, we can only constrain the contribution of type IIP SNe to no more than 59.9%. Thus, core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and stripped-envelope supernovae can both be ruled out as the dominant source of the diffuse neutrino flux under the given assumptions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL12
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume949
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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