Different types of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) have been considered as candidate sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. Stripped-envelope SNe, including energetic events like hypernovae and super-luminous SNe, are of particular interest. They may harbor relativistic jets, which are capable of explaining the diversity among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), low-luminosity GRBs, ultra-long GRBs, and broadline Type Ib/c SNe. Using the six-year IceCube data on high-energy starting events (HESEs), we perform an unbinned maximum likelihood analysis to search for spatial and temporal coincidences with 222 samples of SNe Ib/c. We find that the present data are consistent with the background only hypothesis, by which we place new upper constraints on the isotropic-equivalent energy of cosmic rays, cr ≤ ∼1052 erg, in the limit that all SNe are accompanied by on-axis jets. Our results demonstrate that not only upgoing muon neutrinos but also HESE data enable us to constrain the potential contribution of these SNe to the diffuse neutrino flux observed in IceCube. We also discuss implications for the next-generation neutrino detectors such as IceCube-Gen2 and KM3Net.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics